The researchers assessed the cost-effectiveness of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist. The clinical utility of surgical checklists was well recognized. However, only a few of them have looked at the profitability of using the lists. Data from the single randomized controlled trial in the checklist were used for economic evaluation. The surveys were based on 3,702 processes. Costs were determined for each procedure and its associated admission, including the costs of implementing the checklist, the length and cost of hospital stay, the costs of using electric blankets, transfusions blood tests and antibiotics used in the operating room, and the cost of clinical time in the operating room. To simulate an empirical distribution of the average influence of the checklist on total admission costs and the probability of observing uncomplicated entry, a nonparametric bootstrap was used and quantification of sampling uncertainty around average cost estimates. The total cost of implementing the checklist was estimated at $900 per 100 admissions. The WHO checklist resulted in 5.9 additional entries without complications per 100 admissions and an average of 110 bed days avoided per 100 admissions after its implementation. Using the WHO checklist was expected to save $55,899 for 100 entries when all costs were taken into account. The investigators found the WHO list to be a cost-effective technique for improving surgical safety.